Time： 2023-04-25 19:50:18
Question 1：What is the purpose of hypobaric storage technology?
Question 2：What types of hypobaric storage equipment are there?
Question 3：What is the nature of hypobaric storage technology?
Question 4：What are the types of hypobaric storage technologies?
Question 5：Where do the theories and techniques of hypobaric storage come from?
Question 6：What is the principle of hypobaric storage for fresh products or food preservation?
Question 7：What are the elements of Dr. Stanley P. Burg's continuous extraction vacuum refrigeration technology?
Question 8：Can you briefly introduce the unique advantages of hypobaric storage technology for preservation and preservation?
Question 9：What are the advantages of hypobaric storage and preservation technology compared to ordinary refrigeration or controlled atmosphere refrigeration without freezing?
Question 10：Why cannot the widely circulated theory of 'hypobaric storage technology is a development of controlled atmosphere storage technology and a special type of controlled atmosphere storage technology' be established?
Question 1：What is the purpose of hypobaric storage technology?
Answer 1: Simply put, it is used for preserving fresh agricultural and sideline products. Mainly including:
A. Fresh vegetables, fruits, edible mushrooms, cut flowers, meat and poultry products, and aquatic products are kept fresh, that is, stored, transported, and shelved without freezing. Fresh vegetables and fruits that have undergone short-term hypobaric treatment can be kept fresh under the condition of cold chain breakage;
B. Cooked food and grain preservation;
C. Fresh cut vegetables are kept fresh on refrigerated shelves, with broken chains at the end of the refrigeration chain (without temperature control environment) for preservation, delaying the browning of the cut surface;
D. Inhibiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms and molds;
E. Kill insects;
F. Preservation of fabrics, leather, calligraphy and painting, archives, and traditional Chinese medicine;
G. Preservation of animals, viscera, and corpses.
Question 2：What types of hypobaric storage equipment are there?
Answer 2: Types include: hypobaric storage warehouses, hypobaric refrigerated trucks, hypobaric refrigerated containers, hypobaric refrigerated shelters, hypobaric refrigerated display cabinets, vacuum fresh-keeping cabinets, etc. The library can be placed on land or equipped on ships. Family, commercial kitchens, fresh vegetable and fruit production sites, livestock and poultry slaughter sites, fresh logistics, etc. can all be used. The volume of a vacuum storage room can be as small as tens of liters or approximately several hundred cubic meters. Our company has entered the market with products with a minimum vacuum chamber volume of 100L and a maximum of 50m3, including vacuum refrigerated warehouses and vacuum fresh-keeping cabinets. The vacuum refrigeration equipment can form a vacuum cold fresh chain on its own.
Question 3: What is the nature of hypobaric storage technology?
Answer 3: It is a pollution-free green physics technology. During use, there is no need for any auxiliary techniques such as preservatives, additives, or nitrogen filling.
Question 4: What are the types of hypobaric storage technologies?
Answer 4: Chinese scientists classify hypobaric storage technology into two types: regular pumping (static) and continuous pumping (airflow). Actually, it is an intermittent and continuous pumping type. In addition to suitable low temperature, the technical core of the former is "low pressure", while the technical core of the latter is "low pressure+high humidity+ventilation". Dr. Stanley P. Burg has always been, and only is, a continuous pumping type pressure reducing technology.
The working method of the regular pumping type is that the vacuum pump extracts air from the storage room. When the vacuum degree inside reaches its set upper limit value, such as 15kPa, the vacuum pump stops, and the pressure in the vacuum chamber increases due to leakage. When it reaches the set lower limit value, such as 20kPa, the vacuum pump operates again and the vacuum degree increases, and the vacuum pump operates intermittently and repeatedly. The increase in relative humidity in the vacuum chamber is similar to this intermittent repetition. Breathe every few hours or even tens of hours. It can be seen that its suction is based on the pressure adjustment range, not on the set time. Therefore, it cannot be pumped regularly, but only intermittently, and is not "stationary". It is more appropriate to call it the intermittent suction type. Zheng Xianzhang, the founder of Rushui Company, first proposed the concept of intermittent air extraction. Our company's products have a minimum working pressure of no more than 5kPa and a pressure fluctuation of no more than 1kPa.
The working mode of the continuous pumping type is that the vacuum pump continuously draws vacuum and maintains the pressure in the vacuum chamber within the set pressure range, such as 1.35kPa ± 0.05kPa. Increasing relative humidity and continuously accompanying ventilation in the vacuum chamber, namely "continuous ventilation, continuous humidification, and continuous ventilation" and "three continuous" simultaneous operation technology. It can be seen that it is not simply a "airflow". Therefore, it is more appropriate to call it a continuous pumping type. Firstly, Zheng Xianzhang, the founder of Shanru Water Company, clearly proposed the concept of continuous air extraction. The concept of continuous suction type pressure reducing technology is presented in Dr Stanley P. Burg's monographs, papers, and patents do not appear, but this concept has been recognized by Burg. The minimum working pressure of our company's products shall not exceed 0.5kPa, and the pressure fluctuation shall not exceed ± 0.04kPa.
Question 5: Where do the theories and techniques of hypobaric storage come from?
Answer 5: The internationally recognized theory of hypobaric storage was founded by American scientist Dr. Stanley P. Burg, and the technology was also created by him.
《Postharvest Physiology and Hypobaric Storage of Fresh Produce》（by Stanley P. Burg. CABI， In 1957, Workman et al. noticed that the respiratory heat of fresh tomatoes slightly decreased when the ambient temperature was 20 ℃ and the pressure increased by 88mm Hg. Hummel et al.'s report pointed out that the lifespan of several fresh garden products was extended by 20-90% when the pressure was maintained at 658-709mm Hg in a household refrigerator. However, the textbook "Horticultural Product Storage and Transportation" (Science Press, 2009) for the 11th Five Year Plan of ordinary higher education stated: In 1957, Workman and Hummel et al. discovered that some fruits and vegetables can further reduce respiration rate and ethylene production by lowering air pressure on the basis of refrigeration, thereby significantly extending their shelf life. "" In 1957, Workman and Hummel et al. also discovered... "This discussion can be found in the" 12th Five Year Plan "textbook" Horticultural Product Storage and Marketing "of ordinary higher education institutions (Science Press, 2012), It is also common in other university textbooks, monographs, and commentary papers.
American scientist Stanley P. Burg submitted the world's first vacuum refrigeration technology patent to the US Patent Office in 1963 and was granted in 1967. Subsequently, several patents were obtained. From laboratory experimental research to the commercial application research of intermodal containers for highway rail sea intermodal transportation, from the technology of hypobaric storage equipment to the research on the technical parameters of hypobaric storage process, we have been persistent for decades to this day. He is a world-renowned postharvest physiologist for fresh horticultural products. Ethylene (C2H4) was discovered by Russian scientist Nel Jubow in the early 20th century (1901 or 1902) and was only detected in apples by Burg and Thimmann, K.V. using instruments in 1959. Under Burg's proposal in 1965, ethylene was recognized as a natural plant hormone. Dr. Stanley P. Burg has two monographs: 1. Postharvest Physiology and Hypobaric Storage of Fresh Product (CABI, 2004); 2、Hypobaric Storage in Food Industry： Advances in Application and Theory（Elsevier，2014）。
The aforementioned "Horticultural Product Storage and Transportation" also states that hypobaric storage "is a special method of controlled atmosphere storage that has been further developed on the basis of refrigeration and controlled atmosphere storage." This argument clearly lacks theoretical or experimental basis.
Question 6: What are the principles for preserving fresh products or food during hypobaric storage?
Answer 6: For a closed container, that is, a vacuum chamber that continuously extracts air while continuously delivering fresh air that is close to saturation, that is, continuous extraction, continuous humidification, and continuous air exchange. At this point, the air entering the vacuum chamber will undergo rapid expansion. When the working pressure is below 1330Pa, the concentration of CO2, ethylene, and other substances in the air will decrease by 99%; Fresh fruits, vegetables, and other garden products will have their respiratory heat and heat transfer capacity, as well as ethylene production, suppressed by more than 90%; Extremely low O2 concentration and near zero CO2 concentration are the most effective ways to prevent the growth of microorganisms and aerobic molds, leading to the death of insects inside and outside plant tissue while the plant tissue itself is not harmed, causing the stomata of horticultural products to open in the dark (stomata to open), greatly facilitating gas transmission and diffusion; Effectively inhibit the activity changes (increase or decrease) of several enzymes that affect maturation and aging; Limit Vc losses, etc. Continuous air exchange will continuously suck harmful gases such as ethylene, acetaldehyde, and ethanol from the vacuum chamber to the vacuum chamber to purify the storage environment; The oxygen concentration that fresh horticultural products can tolerate can be as low as 0.1% or less. In addition, the extremely high relative humidity greatly reduces the water loss of stored products.
The most important aspects of freshness preservation for fresh products are inhibition of enhanced respiration, inhibition of ethylene production, reduction of water loss, antibacterial preservation, and pest control. The 'three consecutive' creates such a storage environment.
At an O2 concentration of 0.13%, the average growth rates of Ruizopus Stolonifer, Alternaria tenuis, Botrytis cinerea, and Cladosporium herbarum were inhibited to 17%, 12%, 10%, and 4%, respectively. At a pressure of 2kPa and 9.4 ± 0.1d, all Anasterpha suspensa Loeu eggs and larvae were killed. Fresh agricultural and sideline products are in a dormant state in vacuum refrigeration equipment. Therefore, vacuum refrigeration technology is the most effective physical technology for preserving fresh products.
Bacteria and bacterial toxins, mold and fungal toxins, viruses, parasites and insect eggs, insects, and natural toxins from animals and plants cause biological pollution to food. Agricultural chemicals, food additives, and packaging materials may contain polychlorinated biphenyls, which can cause chemical pollution. The above pollution can cause diseases. Euclidean bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other bacteria can cause soft, rotten, and unpleasant odors in vegetables; Grey mold and white mold can cause vegetable acid rot, root rot, etc; Mold, yeast, etc. can cause fruit to become soft, sour, rotten, brown, etc; Mold, yeast, etc. can cause meat to become sticky, discolored, moldy, and foul smelling; Pseudomonas, fungi, etc. can cause sticky and unpleasant odors in poultry; Pseudomonas and other bacteria can cause sticky and unpleasant odors in fish and shellfish. Reduced pressure refrigeration technology can greatly reduce the concentration of volatile pollutants in the storage environment while effectively inhibiting microbial and fungal activity and killing insects. Therefore, vacuum refrigeration technology is also an effective physical technology for food safety preservation.
Question 7: What are the elements of Dr. Stanley P. Burg's continuous extraction vacuum refrigeration technology?
Answer 7: The technical elements are roughly as follows: continuous air extraction, continuous humidification, and continuous air exchange operate simultaneously; Under the condition of "three consecutive" simultaneous operation, the maximum working pressure is 2.67kPa and the minimum is 0.6kPa; Under the condition of "three consecutive" simultaneous operation, the relative humidity is above 90% or even close to saturation; Under the condition of "three consecutive" simultaneous operation, the hourly air change rate is 30% -100% of the vacuum chamber volume; The temperature range is -1 ℃ (non freezing) to+13.3 ℃. Our research and other researchers have shown that the storage pressure for fresh horticultural products should be below 2kPa, and for meat and poultry products, it should be below 0.6kPa.
Question 8: Can you briefly introduce the unique advantages of hypobaric storage technology for preservation and preservation?
Answer 8: The continuous extraction type vacuum refrigeration technology has the following unique advantages.
1) Preservation or preservation has a wide range of applications, including fresh vegetables, fruits, edible mushrooms, livestock and poultry products, aquatic products, cooked foods, etc;
2) Extend the storage and transportation freshness period or shelf life of items, and extend the cold chain break freshness period. Provided technical support for cracking the challenges of fresh e-commerce, fresh home furnishings, and their last mile;
3) Effectively inhibit the growth of microorganisms and molds;
4) Effectively kill insects inside and outside the item;
5) Low water loss rate of fresh vegetables and fruits;
6) The quality of fresh vegetables and fruits, especially the nutrient Vc, is maintained well;
7) Can be mixed for storage and transportation;
8) It has a short-term processing effect and can be used as a post-production processing equipment for fresh vegetables and fruits, as well as a pre-treatment equipment for cold chain logistics. Fresh vegetables and fruits can be treated under reduced pressure for a short period of time, which can extend the cold storage period, break the cold chain preservation period, and inhibit the rapid decline in quality;
9) Fresh vegetables and fruits are processed into fresh cut products (fresh cut fruits and vegetables) after short-term hypobaric treatment, which can extend the cold storage period, cold chain breakage preservation period, delay the browning or blackening of the cut surface, and inhibit rapid quality deterioration;
10) After short-term hypobaric treatment, modified atmosphere packaging can achieve better preservation effect. Cauliflower is refrigerated for 104 days after short-term treatment, with reduced
The overall whiteness of the refrigerated treatment is 95%, and the content of reducing ascorbic acid Vc is 37.8mg/100g. Compared to those who were refrigerated in the refrigerator, the overall condition was rotten, black, and inedible; Broccoli was washed and cut into fresh cut vegetables after short-term treatment, and then refrigerated for 49 days. After vacuum refrigeration treatment, it showed no rot or mold, and was fully edible with a Vc content of 45.8mg/100g. After refrigeration treatment, it showed wet rot and gray mold, with a Vc content of 3.4mg/100g. The Vc content of fresh cut broccoli treated with short-term hypobaric was 13.47 times higher than that of the control.
Question 9: What are the advantages of hypobaric storage and preservation technology compared to ordinary refrigeration or controlled atmosphere refrigeration without freezing?
Answer 9: It has the following advantages:
1) Extend the storage and transportation period by 1-10 times. For example, the storage period of bananas is about 14-21 days in a regular cold storage, 42-56 days in a controlled atmosphere storage, and up to 150 days in reduced pressure storage or transportation;
2) After leaving the hypobaric environment, the shelf life can be extended by 2-9 days. For example, beef has a storage period of 12 days in a regular cold storage, a shelf life of 0, a reduced pressure storage or transportation period of 41 days, and a shelf life of 8-9 days under atmospheric pressure *;
3) Extend the refrigerated shelf life of fresh cut vegetables for more than 3 days, extend the shelf life of the end of the cold chain (without temperature control environment) for more than 4 hours in summer, and delay the degree of browning of easily browning cut surfaces such as potatoes * *;
4) The original appearance, color, aroma, and flavor of the storage are best maintained. For example, green asparagus, stored under reduced pressure for more than 50 days, still presents its original green color, tender and sweet taste, and does not produce fibrosis;
5) Fruits can ripen later. For example, Shanghai Nanhui produces 7-8 ripe peaches, which begin to ripen after 6 days of storage in a vacuum storage facility. The taste and sweetness of the peach produced in Changzhou, Jiangsu Province increased by about 2% after short-term treatment under reduced pressure and refrigeration for 20 days, followed by 5 days in a high-temperature and uncontrolled environment in Nanjing in August 2013;
6) Inhibit microbial and fungal activity, kill insects inside and outside of stored products *, * *. For example, dried tofu is refrigerated under reduced pressure for 27 days without mold or odor. After a few days of refrigeration in the refrigerator, fruit flies (white rice like insects) will crawl on the surface of fresh bayberries, and only a few dead insects can be seen in the vacuum freezer;
7) The extremely low O2 concentration environment will not cause hypoxia damage to the storage. The O2 concentration during reduced pressure storage and transportation should generally be below 0.3%. Strawberries were stored at a pressure range of 450-600Pa for 15 days without any symptoms of hypoxia damage, and their taste and color were as bright as before;
8) It can reduce the concentration of C2H4, CO2, NH3 and other volatile pollutants in the storage environment by more than 90%, effectively purifying the storage environment;
9) The relative humidity in the storage room can be maintained close to saturation without affecting the antibacterial and insecticidal effects. The relative humidity in the vacuum chamber is close to saturation, and the vegetables are refrigerated under reduced pressure for 36 days without yellowing, mold, rot, and fresh green, with a good vegetable rate of 100% * *;
10) The water loss rate of storage is the smallest, and the water loss rate caused by respiratory heat is about 1/5-1/10 of that of ordinary cold storage, and about 1/2-1/5 * of that of controlled atmosphere storage. Yangmei and lychee showed no weight loss for 37 days, while pork and beef showed no weight loss for 27 days;
11) Some different items can be mixed and stored. For example, meat, fish, shrimp, strawberries, and soy products can be stored in the same vacuum chamber without cross flavoring;
12) The application scope is extremely wide, and it can freeze and transport fresh vegetables, fruits, edible mushrooms, fresh cut flowers, fresh cut strips, pork, beef, lamb, poultry, fish and shrimp, cooked food, etc. Can be used on land or on ships *;
13) New physical technologies for food safety preservation. For example, freshly cooked meat buns, vegetable buns, and bean paste buns are refrigerated under reduced pressure for 70 days without mold, odor, and elasticity;
14) Vc maintained well. After short-term treatment with reduced pressure refrigeration and modified atmosphere packaging, the overall white and edible rate of white cauliflower after 104 days of refrigeration is 95% on average, and the average Vc content is 37.8mg/100g. The control black and rotten vegetables treated at the same temperature in the refrigerator have no edible value; Broccoli was subjected to short-term hypobaric and refrigeration treatment, followed by cutting, cleaning, and modified atmosphere packaging. After 49 days of refrigeration, there was no mold, no rot, and an average of 45.8mg/100g of Vc content. The control group treated at the same temperature in the refrigerator had an average of 3.4mg/100g of gray mold, black rot, and Vc content.
*The data comes from 'Postharvest Physiology and Hypobaric Storage of Fresh Product' (Stanley P. Burg. CABI Publishing, 2004).
**The data comes from an experiment conducted by Shanru Water Company.
***The data comes from an experiment conducted by the Nanjing Wildlife Comprehensive Utilization Engineering Technology Research Institute of the National China Supply and Marketing Cooperative Corporation.
****The data comes from experiments conducted by the Naval Medical Research Institute.
Question 10:Why can't the widely circulated theories of "hypobaric storage technology is a development of controlled atmosphere storage technology, a special type of controlled atmosphere storage technology" and "playing a similar role in controlled atmosphere" be established?
Answer 10: So far, several professors and experts in China have not found any theoretical basis or experimental evidence for the development of "hypobaric storage technology", which is a special type of controlled atmosphere storage technology. It plays a similar role to controlled atmosphere storage, and "hypobaric storage technology is a special type of controlled atmosphere storage method developed on the basis of refrigeration and controlled atmosphere storage." Some speculate based on "all low oxygen concentrations. Zheng Xianzhang has been studying 'Postharvest Physiology and Hypobaric Storage of Fresh Product' under the guidance of Dr. Stanley P. Burg since 2005. Under his guidance, he first developed a continuously aspirated vacuum refrigerated warehouse in China in 2008. Since then, he has been communicating frequently through email. Our company has conducted experimental research on the vacuum refrigeration and preservation of over 80 vegetables, fruits, edible mushrooms, livestock and poultry products, aquatic products, cooked foods, and bean products Research on antibacterial and pest control, including fresh cut vegetables preservation, including learning from experts in controlled atmosphere refrigeration and packaging, believes that the basic theories of hypobaric and controlled atmosphere are different, the preservation principles are different, the technical sources are different, the basic components of equipment are different, the preservation effects are different, and the application fields are also different.
The basic principle of controlled atmosphere refrigeration is to provide a suitable storage environment with low O2 concentration and high CO2 concentration for fruits and vegetables on the basis of refrigeration, that is, to create a "low temperature, low oxygen, high carbon dioxide" storage environment. CO2 concentrations higher than 10-20% can inhibit the proliferation of various bacteria, while concentrations higher than 20-50% can prevent mold growth. The principle of hypobaric storage technology can be found in answer 6. Reduced pressure refrigeration and controlled atmosphere refrigeration both reduce O2 concentration, but the extent of reduction varies greatly;Hypobaric naturally accompanies a decrease in O2 concentration and a proportional decrease in CO2 concentration, but generally controlled atmosphere refrigeration must increase CO2 concentration while reducing O2 concentration. Low O2 concentration can cause hypoxia damage, while high CO2 concentration can lead to CO2 poisoning; However, even if the O2 concentration during hypobaric storage is as low as 1/10 of the low oxygen threshold for controlled atmosphere refrigeration, there will be no hypoxia injury, and CO2 poisoning cannot occur in a hypobaric storage environment. Reduced pressure refrigeration does not require nitrogen filling, while controlled atmosphere refrigeration must be filled with nitrogen; The O2 and CO2 concentrations of vacuum refrigeration do not need to be detected or controlled, but are regulated by vacuum degree. The O2 and CO2 concentrations of controlled atmosphere refrigeration must be detected and strictly controlled. The O2 concentration in plateau and high mountain areas is lower than that at sea level, and it is not considered that those areas are controlled atmosphere environments. Similarly, the theory that low O2 concentration in a depressurized environment is considered as a controlled atmosphere or a special type of controlled atmosphere cannot be established. If the O2 concentration is low, it means controlled atmosphere, so there is no need for controlled atmosphere cold storage or packaging in plateau and high mountain areas. The low CO2 concentration in low-pressure environments causes plant stomata to open in the dark. All of these indicate that reducing pressure plays a role that cannot be achieved by regulating qi. The theory that plays a similar role in regulating atmosphere is clearly not valid, and practical applications have also proven that this theory is not valid. The opening of pores in the dark is the difference between hypobaric technology and controlled atmosphere technology. If you are interested in a deeper understanding, please refer to my paper Discussion on the Mainstream Viewpoint of the Theory of Hypobaric Storage Technology (Journal of agricultural engineering, 2017, 33 (14)).
Note: For any errors or inadequacies in the answer, please use firstname.lastname@example.org Contact and answer any questions. （2019.1.6）
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